Tag Archives: Interaction

IVAS eXPeriment

Thirty-five people took part in the Immersive Virtual Architecture Studio (IVAS) between 26th February and 9th March 2018. The experiment was simply presented as a room scale VR experience where you would have to solve a few jigsaw puzzles inside different rooms. This was one of the most important and exciting parts of my PhD research project. Follows a short explanation of context, purpose and approach.

Soapbox VR room running IVAS with Dean.

Context

Homo Sapiens’ biggest achievement, to a certain extent, as a global civilization, has been to transform and adapt the environment to his needs. The main strength to achieve this outcome is Sapiens “spatial awareness”: the ability to perceive and make sense of his spatial environment and the intrinsic sense of agency that it affords. Sapiens developed this ability following different trait, the most recognizable one being known under the field of “architecture”. For more than five thousand years, using bricks and mortar, he built places to fulfill all the different functions required by society: services, religions, politics and other cultural activities. In the 21st century, Virtual Reality (VR), an inherently spatial technology, offers us the perfect medium to test and apply some architectural principles developed over the centuries to structure and navigate today’s overwhelming digital landscape.

Purpose

The built environment has a significant effect on humans behavior in the physical world (1). How does that translate in VR? The overall aim of this project is to establish the foundations of a framework to support the design of Immersive Virtual Environments. Such a framework will have benefits not only for scientists but in every field VR is disrupting such as game design, industrial design, data visualization and learning applications to name just a few.

Approach

This study is exploring ways to evaluate how different architectural elements affect human’s spatial cognition performance using the IVAS. The following steps will be to apply those findings to support specific cognitive tasks for specific users. This particular iteration of the project is looking at two architectural elements arranged following two spatial characteristics. Those fours conditions are tested using three cognitive tasks. Follows a short description of the setup.

Physical Space – Hardware – Mode of Interaction

For most of our history, natural movement has been the only way to navigate our environment and to experience “architecture”, therefore, it is the primary mode of interaction used in this experiment. To accompany this principle, a room-scale VR environment is set up with a minimum of 9 sqm (3mx3m) of navigable space. In this instance, the IVAS exp. happened in two different rooms, at two different sites: Goldsmiths, Hatcham house, 1 and Soapbox, Old Street 68.
The second mode of interaction is the VR system which is composed of an HTC Vive head-mounted display with two wireless hand-held controllers allowing together 18 degrees of freedom (18 DOF) of movement. The headset is tethered to a powerful laptop that runs the simulation.

Prt Screen from Unity running IVAS A1

Virtual Space – Software – 3D Models

The room with approximately the same dimensions as the physical room is modeled in 3D and will serve as the base for the different conditions (architectural scenes) that will be tested. All other 3D assets are modeled using 3Dsmax before being imported in Unity3D where the interactivity is programmed.

Spatial Conditions

Two architectural elements, wall and columns, were studied following two spatial characteristics: enclosure and complexity (3)

  • A1 : Close Columns
  • A2 : Open Columns
  • B1 : Close Walls
  • B2 : Open Walls
Layout of the different conditions.

Three Tasks involving Spatial Cognition

Solving a Jigsaw Puzzle

This task was design to encourage participants to navigate the space in search for all the items needed to solve the puzzle. A stopwatch was encouraging them to do so as fast as possible – a way to measure performance. VR allows to easily track user’s movement: time, position and rotation. Everybody seems to have enjoyed solving the jigsaw puzzle and were very focused on the task. I had to remind them to explore the space before starting the task. Once the puzzle was solved, the participant was automatically transferred to a transition area where he had to rate two experiential qualities.

Rating of Experiential Qualities (REQ)

The spatial analysis can only be meaningful in regards to an equivalent evaluation from a human experience point of view. Evaluating “lived space” (2) can be done by asking participants to rate their experience with each spatial characteristics. This task brings the qualitative human evaluation into the equation. Using a semantic differential scaling technique, subjects were able to differentiate their appraisal using a five-step Likert-like scale. The rating categories were selected to represent previously mentioned properties: enclosure and complexity.

Perspective Taking Task (PTT)

Once out of the IVAS, participants had to answer a few questions on the online questionnaire before completing this last cognitive task. The main purpose of this task is to measure the memorability of each scene (4). It consists of a sequence of 16 pairs of images. For each pair, one of the images was taken from one of the explored room, the other image was taken from a room not visited. The participant had to identify which image relates to one of the scenes he had experienced.

Perspective Taking Task – All the views
Perspective Taking Task – Pair 03
Perspective Taking Task – Pair 11

Space Syntax Design Analysis

The design analysis using Space Syntax approach will give us an objective measure of each considered spatial characteristics. By combining both “Isovist” and “Visibility Graph” techniques, we obtain a number of measurands (3). In this case, we will be using the following measurands to represent the best predictor variables for the spatial characteristic considered:

The spatial qualities and their related measurands are :

  • Enclosure: “isovist openness” and “jaggedness”;
  • Complexity : “number of vertices”, “vertex density”, “roundness” and “jaggedness”;

Early Observations

A quick glance at the data shows that participants experienced spatial complexity as intended in the scenes designed with the columns. Their average best performance comes out of the scene with the closest room with columns. However, the feeling of openness doesn’t seem to be related to the number of windows in the room. One explanation for this is most probably because there was a texture on the glass. It wasn’t completely transparent. A participant even said: “I didn’t realize that there were glass panel walls!”
This is just a short intro of the kind of conclusions I am working on. This experiment is bringing plenty of good data to dig into, some with positive results some negatives. I have a few pages to fill with that discussion (check further posts).


References:
  1. Arthur E. Stamps. Mystery, complexity, legibility and coherence: A meta-analysis. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 24(1):1–16, 3 2004
  2. Annemarie S. Dosen and Michael J. Ostwald. Lived space and geometric space: comparing people’s perceptions of spatial enclosure and exposure with metric room properties and isovist measures. Architectural Science Review, 60(1):62–77
  3. Jan M. Wiener and Gerald Franz. Isovists as a Means to Predict Spatial Experience and Behavior. pages 42–57. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2005.
  4. Barbara Tversky and Bridgette Martin Hard. Embodied and disembodied cognition: Spatial perspective-taking. Cognition, 110(1):124–129, 1 2009.

 

Report from the VR World Congress 2017

Bristol was hosting this three days congress. What a good excuse to explore the West Coast of England. Loved it! How to report from such an big event pact of keynotes, talks, debates and demos about Virtual and Augmented Reality, interactive storytelling and immersive art, architecture visualisation and video game development, to name just a few of the field involved ? I will start with  the general trends, then some key points from the talks, to finish with what really got me hooked.

This event was a solid push from AMD. As far as I can remember, AMD had always an edge to better process 3D on his most known rival Intel. Well, it looks like they are still in the fight, but now to process VR wirelessly with their Nitero tech. And this is important because, being in a virtual environment is pretty cool, however, without any cable in our way, it will be much better.  Hololens has taken that mobility party from the start. They made quite a demo there, bringing forward the Mixed Reality concept. That being said, I am still not convinced with this small field of view and the basic interaction where you pinch things around.

Mk2 in Paris
SoReal in china

In the meantime, the big hype is around VR location-based experiences. Mk2 in Paris looks very neat, curating only high quality content and SoReal, a VR theme Park in China sounds epic. On a hardware note, I am curious to see what kind of headset the Chinese will bring on the market with their DeePoon!

Another main trend is the good old haptic feedback. They are working hard to bring the third sense into the game. We are not sure what shape it will take:  gloves, waves, arms, sensors,…but it was explore in every corner of the congress.

Most important is the effort given to produce high quality content. At this stage, only great content will bring VR to the mass.

Follows bullets points of my tweets and comments of the different talks I followed:

On Wednesday:

  • Vive and the Evolving Ecosystem of VR” with Graham Breen from HTC.
    HTC Vive – Haptic

    What’s next for Vive and his ecosystem evolution? Not much on the hardware side, a part of those haptic gloves shown there. They are focus on helping and promoting content creators with their Viveport platform and the ViveX accelerator.

  • Streaming VR/AR Content over the Web”  with Jamieson Brettle from Google. That’s where it get really exciting! AR/VR through the browser. He was telling about pretty good compression performances for cloud point 3D with Draco. For sound volumetric or spatial audio, they are using Opus with ambisonic compression.
  • “Ghost in the Shell VR – A deep Dive” with Sol Rogers from Rewind.
    He delivered a great talk about how he and his team made Ghost in the Shell. He gave no numbers and ask very nicely not to take a photo!

    That’s all I got from Ghost in the Shell
  • “The Importance of touch: Mid-air haptic feedback for VR & AR” with Tom Carter from Ultrahaptics.
    How cool is that, conducting emotions through mid air haptic feedback? Because, at the end, it is the sense of touch that makes things real.
  • Perception = Reality: Exploiting Perceptual Illusions for Design of Compelling AR & VR Interfaces” with Hrvoje Benko from Microsoft Research. Don’t try to be perfect. Use tricks and perception illusion.

Using perception illusion to extend the experience; Passive haptic; Perspective Projection Mapping;  The rubber hand effect revisited as Haptic Retargetting; Body warping and world warping are very promising technic that make you  believe you interacting with objects and that gives you this haptic feedback.

  • “Virtual Futures Track: The Ethics of VR Risks and Recommendations” with Michael Madar from University of Mainz
    • Why should we care?  Our environment influence our behaviour.
    • VR brings the illusions of place, embodiment and agency.
    • Beneficial vs manipulative in VR, tricky balance to make.
    • Are we going to create a rating system for VR experience?
    • “Users should be made aware that there is evidence that experience in VR can have a lasting influence on behaviour after leaving the virtual environment.”
    • Users should also be made aware that we do not yet know the effects of long-term immersion.”

On Thursday, I went to only one talk from the lovely blue hair Mary Kassin from Google who explained her day-to-day process. She prototypes a lot. Trial, user feedback and iteration make the most of her time. She also mentioned the Tango ready phone to play with AR.

Alright, this is all very exciting, full of ideas, however, what made the biggest impression on me was the couple of VR visualisation agencies showing off their architectural Immersive and Interactive walk-through made with Unreal engine.  With this very realistic real-time rendering, we are getting closer to eliminate the long hours of rendering time for still images for a full immersive experience in the early stage of the process.  That is happening right now!

Virtual Reality Immersion for Christmas.

Over Christmas, my son and I had the opportunity to play around with the HTC Vive. Straightforward to set up, you need at least 2 by 2 meters of free space to enjoy the full range of motion. Overall, that was a couple of weeks of awesomeness. Follows a few lines on the games and experiences we have tried out.
  • “The Lab”: After the tutorial, this is the first place from where you start and learn the trick of the trade of the Vive. The main thing is to get use to moving around by pointing, with one of the controller, a ray of light  on a virtual grid on the floor. Then, pressing the trigger will teleport you to the pointed location. I am not totally convince by this method. It still gives me a kind of thickness and definitely reduce the feeling of presence.

    The Lab – Where you start to use the grid to teleport around
  • “Rec Room” : my son’s favorite. He  played in there for hours. The stranger thing in Rec Room is that you play with strangers; you talk to them like they are just in front of you in the room. Well in a way that’s where they are,  virtually next to you. Then you make a team and go playing a exciting paintball or football game, even though they actually are in another country.

    Rec Room, playing paint ball game with some frenchy.
  • Portal Stories: VR”:  love it, my personal favorite game. Really good adaptation of an already so clever and fun game. A perfect match for the HTC vive. In one sentence, the game is about getting out of a room to the next. It is all about the room. Your living room suddenly develop an infinite potential.

    Portal Stories: VR
  • “Irrational Exuberance: Prologue” : this introduction to a new kind of experience is really well design with subtlety. It starts from a very dark environment with just the title and some strange sphere of energy in your hands. They are encouraging you to use those to follow the sphere that goes along the title itself. Then you start to perceive some pieces of stone floating around. Instinctively, you want to push them away, then they break in smaller pieces. Doing the same movement a bit further, at some point you will hit something bigger which will break as well to bring you a glimpse of the outer space. This is the actual wall that surrounds you. By break the wall, you realise that you are standing inside a meteorite. The experience is very immersive, and taking you to a place you couldn’t have imagine. We want to see more of that!

    Irrational Exuberance: Prologue by Buffalo Vision Immersion:
  •  “Google Earth VR” :  bring you as a giant on earth. It is a fantastic feeling to be able to jump from one city to the next. I loved landing effortlessly at the top of the world on Mount Everest

    Google Earth VR
  •  “Engage” is a Educational Virtual Learning Platform. That is where I get very exited. That is the core of my research project: how can we use this amazing technology to enhance the learning experience, to change education for ever?

    Engage – Main hall with the whale
We tried a few other applications as well like this architectural walkthrough “Bund88” which was not easy to load up probably due to the very quality of the render. However, the experience was so realistic. This is definitely a game changer for the architecture and real estate industry. The Roller coaster just made me sick, no comment. No problem for my son though.

The HTC vive is just one more convincing step towards the development of a new medium with a huge potential not only for entertaining  but more for learning and sharing new skills and knowledge between people all over the world.

I was in those virtual worlds more than two weeks ago and still, I can close my eyes and vividly remember the different environments and interactions I lived then as it was this morning.  We learn through experience. That is what VR is all about. We are barely scratching the surface of this new tool that has the potential to positively impact the world.

360 Panoramic Views with WebVR – Production Workflow

Optimising work is part of me. I hate repeating the same task again and again. We are using computers, that’s what they are good at, repeating a task for us. When it comes to work in a team, the workflow get even more important so that two different persons don’t overlap each other work or come back with always the same questions of “how you doing this?” or “where is this file?”. This is all good sense in theory, very far for being the norm in practice, at least from my experience, working mostly with architects and designers. Furthermore, as a freelance, months will pass without using a specific workflow,  working on a different project with different software. Being able to look back at how we did something  is a must if we don’t want to repeat the same mistake again.
On the Saydnaya project I was working on with Forensic Architecture for Amnesty International, we produce a series of interactive 360 panoramic views developed using the fresh WebVR. We didn’t get enough time to develop it in VR, although it is real-time 3D online in a browser, no plugin, no viewer needed. Pretty awesome stuff! Here is the workflow we used to get those 8 Interactive 360 Panoramic views online:
Saydnaya Circulation in 3dsMax
  1. Some of the 3d models were made with Rhino then exported to 3dsMax, most of the models were made only with 3dsMax avoiding any mistranslation between Rhino and 3dsMax, two very different modellers.
  2. All the texturing and lighting was done in 3dsMax, then baked to texture.
  3. Optimization was a big part of the process.. Models were  exported in OBJ (only meshes) and optimised with MeshLab. Maps were optimized with Photoshop.
  4. Everything was tested in a sandbox in WebGL using MAMP as a Apache Local Server, Atom to edit the PhD and Python files.
Saydnaya Circulation WebGL

If you are interested  and would like more details, let me know in the comment below or via email.

What is WebVR? It is 3 things, see this Reddit post here for more details:
  • WebVR is configuring the VR HMDs
  • WebGL is about drawing in WebVR using mainly three.js
  • HTML5 is the sandbox to play in.

Saydnaya Project link

VR for the mass market with Google Daydream?

The next move in the VR world is the Google Daydream initiative. It sounds more like a big marketing push to take advantage of Google Cardboard success though. Nothing is really new in that product. The neat fabric covered headset comes with a remote that nicely fits inside. Take the remote out, place your phone instead and there you  go in VR. As we can all do already with any cheaper cardboard like version. So what is the big deal?
Daydream Home
Daydream Home
Well, it is about the experience, the user experience (UX). A comfortable headset, a powerful phone and a VR app interface will allow you to navigate between your different apps without the need to take the headset off. They want to keep you inside for longer. Sounds good to me.
However, the first question that comes in mind is what phones are Daydream-compatible? Obviously, the recently released Google Pixel phone is. How clever, right? But what qualifies a phone to be Daydream-ready or compatible? This is not so clear yet and it gets too technical anyway. (check this article if you want to know a bit more). My LG G5 with his LCD screen will probably not make it because of the too high persistence. Only the low-persistence of a Full HD OLED display allows to reduce motion blur enough to make the VR experience long lasting (explanation on low-persistence here).
Anyway, it is good to propose a better VR UX at that affordable scale. Clearly the “future proche” of VR is within the mobile market. Now, do we have the content to keep people inside for longer? And do we have the platform to develop more content? Perhaps we do with the WebVR. I will dig that up in a future post.